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From Marty Crull, undated.


Reading: Charts and First reader. Pupils should be able to recognize at sight about fifty familiar words before taking up First Reader. Teach script and printed forms from chart or blackboard, associating (“Word Picture”) with the thing itself, or picture of it, or with some expression of the thought represented. Keep as list of all words learned upon the blackboard, and add new words as soon as learned. Gradually call attention to the letters which compose each word. (See Manual.)

Writing: With long pencils on slate. (See Manual.)

Language: In connection with all work, reading especially, lead pupils to talk in complete sentences; correct common errors of speech. In writing, teach them the simple rules for capitals in proper names, in beginning sentences, and the word I, and rules for use of terminal marks (question mark (?), period (.) etc.)

Spelling: Taught in connection with other lessons (See Manual.)

Numbers: Counting and adding objects, as pegs, beans, balls on the numeral frame, etc. All possible combinations of numbers, the result not to exceed ten. For some time objects should be associated with figures, to give the idea of numbers; each grouping of numbers by using pegs, beans, grains of corn, etc., likewise by actual measurement of feet in a yard, dimes in a dollar, etc. Adding simple columns of not more than ten figures, the result not to exceed thirty. Numbers of two and three read at sight, and written on slates. Roman notation to L. (see Manual.)

General Lessons: Ethics–conversational, on order, etiquette, cleanliness, etc.

General: Talks on the human body, animals, etc.

Object Lessons: The square, oblong, ball, etc. Drawn on slates or paper.

Color Lessons: Common colors, as red, yellow, blue, green, orange, purple, etc., to be distinguished.

Busy Work: Embracing much of the foregoing work in numbers, reading, etc., to be done on slates. Keep children occupied. Vary the work.


Second Year

Reading: Second Reader – Teach long and short vowels with their diacritical marks. (For further suggestions see Manual.)

Writing: (See suggestions in Manual.)

Spelling: Words of Reading lesson for the following recitation, spelled phonetically and by letter, and by the pronunciation repeated until pupils can pronounce all new words fluently: then at the seats pupils should write each new word in two or three more sentences, showing its various meanings. (For further suggestions see Manual.)

Language: Work continued as in First Grade. (See also Manual.)

Numbers: Drill in rapid combinations of all the digits – adding single and double columns. Subtraction of simple numbers, multiplication with one figures in the multiplier. Reading and writing numbers to six places Roman numbers to C. Multiplication table completed. (See Manual.)

General Lessons: Continue as in First Grade.

Ethics: Continue to find occasion to lead children into higher and purer thoughts, to eradicate selfishness, and cultivate generous actions. Relate anecdotes, cling noble deeds of great men. This ought to be as much the work of the teacher as Arithmetic, Grammar, etc.

Busy Work: Continued – The teacher can easily devise new, varied, and profitable employment for seat work – such as number work, writing words of reading lessons in sentences formed by the pupil, drawing, writing, etc.

Physical Training: Pupils will grow tired and dull. A new supply of fresh air and two-minute exercise in calisthenics will invigorate pupils for renewed effort and often preclude mischief.


Third and Fourth Years

Reading: Third Reader – Correct faulty enunciation. Make pupils familiar with new and difficult words. Train them to see and grasp sentences or elements of sentences quickly and thus express the idea naturally. The painful effort of pupils to grasp words in reading comes from trying to pronounce unfamiliar words which should have been previously learned, and often begets “drawling” Train the pupils to express the thoughts of the author in language entirely their own. Read selections requiring great care in articulation. In this class the pupils should own and use a Dictionary.

Writing: Daily Drills in writing should be given to every class of Intermediate and Grammar Grades. (See Suggestions in Manual.)

Spelling: About one-third of the Complete Spelling Book; also all difficult words of other lessons. NO word should be merely spelled and passed over without the assurance that the pupil can pronounce it fluently and use it in various sentences correctly.

Language work: Continued in correction with reading lesson. Compose sentences using all the new words. Pupils write up the substance of the reading lesson in language entirely their own. Cause children to talk about the reading lesson, pictures, flowers – thing, and lead them to express their thought in well-rounded sentences. Letter Writing should be made a prominent feature of the work of this class. Thus far the language work is outlined in connection with reading but its importance should not be overlooked on that account. (See Manual)

Arithmetic: Elementary Arithmetic through Division. Teachers should insist upon a clear, concise analysis of each problem. Continue Drills to secure accuracy and rapidity.

Geography: Location direction of objects in familiar places, as schoolyard, neighborhood, township, count and State. Globe lessons – the earth as a whole, as to form, size, land and water forms; motions of the earth causing day and night. (See Manual)

Physiology: One lesson daily.

General Lessons: Continue as in last Grade. Elementary Science, conversational lessons on History, Animals, Plants etc. Tell pupils about the various occupations, Industries and materials used, and excite interest, inquiry and investigation. Remember that the professional teacher stimulates the pupil’s mind to a desire for knowledge before giving it.


Fifth and Sixth Years

Reading: Fourth Reader – Attention to the rules and principles of good reading. Cultivate the habit of reading “to get the thought” clearly; cultivate the habit of attentive listening by having one pupil read while the rest listen; call some pupil to state clearly what was read; call attention to the ability of different pupils to bring out the thought of the author clearly. Continue use of Dictionary as in third grade. Analyze words; prefixes and suffixes; word defining in sentences – oral and written. (See Manual)

Spelling: About second third of book; also continue spelling the difficult words of other lessons.

Language: Continue work of Third Grade. Parts of speech and their uses, their subdivisions and properties. Pupils may use a textbook or not, as the teacher thinks best. Every point should be applied in oral or written work; and each should be thoroughly mastered before another is taken up. (See Manual)

Arithmetic: Factoring and its applications; Fractions, common and decimal, and compound numbers. (See Manual)

Geography: Elementary Geography completed. Pupils should have drawn maps of Europe, Asia and Africa, and taken a general survey of each; topical outline of your own state.

Physiology: Oral lessons in physiology with the Third Grade.

General Lessons: Lessons on the human body and health lessons continued. Continue elementary lessons in Civil Government and History, Astronomy and natural Philosophy; at least give occasional lessons on government of the School District, Township, County, State and Nation in outline. Inculcate in pupils patriotism, regard for rights of individuals, and obedience to laws, in connection with lessons in practical morality.


Reading: Fifth Reader completed. In this grade it would be well to introduce some such supplementary books as Hawthorne’s “Easy Chair Series” of Historical Readers, or their equivalent, in connection with the Fifth Reader. These books will give a great variety of work.

Writing: Continued as former Grades (See Manual)

Spelling: Complete and review the Spelling Book.

Grammar: The Complete English Grammar, about first half of book; analysis, parsing, syntactical criticisms, and corrections; composition to apply principles of Grammar. (See Manual)

Arithmetic: Review common fractions thoroughly for accuracy and rapidity; also decimal fractions; master the tables of weights and measures; begin percentage. (See Manual)

Geography: The Complete or No. 2 Geography; study topically taking up the work in a connected whole; draw maps giving only the principal features. (See Manual)

U. S. History: (See Manual)

Physiology: With A Class or Intermediate Grade

General Lessons: Outlines of Civil Government, and History Continued. Daily exercises in penmanship continued.


Reading: Occasional; special selections from English and American Authors.

Grammar: Finished and reviewed; about three lessons each week, should be given monthly to composing and construction, alternating with lessons in Grammar. The A and B classes of Grammar Grade should be combined when possible. (See Manual Advanced Division)

Arithmetic: Finish the Complete and review it. In reviewing give plenty of original examples and supplementary work. (See Manual, Advanced Division.)

Physiology: Text book finished.

History: Of United States finished and reviewed; use maps wherever practicable. The lessons in Civil Government may be alternated with History if there is snot time for each as a separate study.

Elementary Sciences: The teacher can do much good in introducing pupils into the study of Botany, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy by reading occasional lessons in elementary books on these subjects.

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